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Denne populære britiske godisen kommer til Amerika

Denne populære britiske godisen kommer til Amerika


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Britiske maltesere fra Mars Candy kommer offisielt til USA i januar 2017

Er britiske søtsaker virkelig bedre enn amerikanske? La oss finne det ut.

Maltesere kommer til Amerika. I flere tiår har Storbritannia hatt en sjokoladebit på skulderen over kvaliteten på britiske søtsaker over amerikanske godterier. Der var til og med alvorlig ramaskrik over den reduserte kvaliteten på nå-amerikansk-eide britiske Cadbury-crèmeegg i fjor.

De mars-eide britiske malteserne vil være tilgjengelige i USA fra og med januar 2017, rapporterte Brand Eating. Disse sjokolade-dekkede maltboller kan være lik Hersheys Whoppers, men konditorivarer vil merke tekstur og smakforskjeller.

Maltesere vil være tilgjengelig i 1,3-unse singler ($ 1,09– $ 1,39), 3-unse teaterbokser ($ 1– $ 1,70), 3,52-unse poser, 14,5-unse kar ($ 4,99– $ 5,99) og 31,1-unse kar ($ 9,48– $ 9,99) ).

Maltesere er allerede tilgjengelige online og på utvalgte kinoer, men de kommer til dagligvare- og nærbutikkhyllene etter nyttår.


Denne populære britiske godisen kommer til Amerika - oppskrifter

TRYKT MED TILLATELSE

En serie i fire deler om de største gruppene av emigranter fra De britiske øyer til Colonial America. De var: PURITANERNE som først og fremst kom fra East Anglia til Massachusetts Bay Colony mellom 1629 og 1640 CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS som først og fremst kom fra Sør -England til Virginia mellom 1642 og 1675 QUAKERS som først og fremst kom fra det engelske Midlands til Pennsylvania mellom 1675 og 1725 og SKOTSK-IRISKEN som først og fremst kom fra de engelsk/skotske grensefylkene (noen ganger via Nord-Irland) til Virginia (via Pennsylvania) mellom 1717 og 1775.

I ALBION'S SEED omtalte David Fischer denne andre gruppen innvandrere som "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". Når vi går videre, tror jeg du vil se hvorfor. Dette var en gruppe mennesker som stort sett emigrerte fra de sørvestlige engelske fylkene Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire og flere andre til Chesapeake Bay -området i Virginia og Maryland mellom 1642 og 1675, og topptiden var 1650 -årene. Årsaken til denne migrasjonen var litt mer komplisert. Puritanerne hadde fått kontroll i England og anglikanerne ble nå forfulgt. Så noen av menneskene som dro, gjorde det på grunn av religiøs forfølgelse, akkurat som puritanerne hadde. Men det var en sekundær motivasjon for noen. Arveloven i England ga all fast eiendom til familiens eldste sønn. Noen av de som forlot England var andre eller tredje sønn av "elite" -familier som ønsket å dra til et sted hvor de kunne ha sitt eget land.

I begynnelsen tiltrukket Virginia mennesker med blandet religiøs bakgrunn. Men hovedreligionen var Church of England (Episcopal). Etter at Virginia ble en kongelig koloni, vedtok forsamlingen lover som gjorde Englands kirke til statskirken i Virginia (1632). Over en periode ble det vanskeligere og vanskeligere for personer av forskjellige religioner å forbli i Virginia.

Omtrent 25 prosent av personene i denne andre migrasjonen var fra den engelske "eliten"-de hadde rikdom, sosial status og utdannelse i England. De var medlemmer av den anglikanske kirken, og de var royalistiske i politikken. De andre 75 prosentene var fra de lavere klassene og kom som tjenere, mange som indenturerte tjenere, for å jobbe på de store plantasjene som ble opprettet av "kavaljerne". Disse var fattige, analfabeter og ufaglærte. Med en gang var det etablert et klassesystem i Virginia som ikke eksisterte og ikke ville blitt godkjent i New England. I denne migrasjonen var menn i antall flere med omtrent 4 til 1. Et flertall av de som kom var ugifte menn mellom 15 og 24 år.

Familiefølelsene var like sterke i denne gruppen som blant puritanerne, men forskjellige i innhold. Det var mye mer vekt på storfamilien. Medlemmer av den samme store familien hadde en tendens til å bosette seg sammen og bo i nærheten av hverandre. Boligenheten var kjernefamilien, men foreningen var storfamilien. De flokket seg sammen i nabolag og begravde sine døde i familietomter. (I motsetning til New England hvor det var felles gravfelt i hver by.) Begrepene "bror" og "fetter" ble brukt mer løst-og kan ikke alltid tas bokstavelig når de finnes i journaler. Husholdninger inkluderte ofte tjenere, losji og besøkende. Alle ble behandlet som familie så lenge de var i husstanden. Virginians syntes ikke å være mistenksom overfor fremmede som New Englanders var.

I Virginia pleide familier å være mindre-hovedsakelig fordi dødeligheten var mye høyere. Det var flere trinnforhold av samme grunn. Denne gruppen delte puritanernes sterke nødvendighet for å gifte seg. Ungkar og spinner ble dømt som unaturlige og farlige for samfunnet. Men ekteskap var ikke en kontrakt, ettersom det i New England var en uoppløselig union, en hellig knute som ikke kunne løsnes. Alle ekteskap ble utført i statskirken (anglikansk) og skilsmisse var ikke tillatt. Det var 5 nødvendige trinn til ekteskap: espousal, banns, religiøs seremoni, ekteskapsfest, seksuell fullbyrdelse. Skriftlig tillatelse fra foreldre var nødvendig. Kjærlighet ble ikke antatt å være nødvendig før ekteskapet. Når det ikke skjedde før, var det forventet å følge det. Foreldre hadde en aktiv rolle i ekteskapsbeslutninger, men tvang vanligvis ikke et barn til å gifte seg mot hans/hennes vilje. Første fetter ekteskap var ok i Virginia og skjedde ofte. Dette fulgte mønsteret deres med "behold det i familien". Ekteskapsfester var forseggjorte-i motsetning til New England hvor de ikke var tillatt. Gjennomsnittsalderen for ekteskap for en mann var omtrent den samme som i New England, 25-26, men for kvinner var den yngre, 18-20 år. Noen menn giftet seg ikke fordi det rett og slett ikke var nok kvinner til å gå rundt. Seksuelle forhold skulle være begrenset til ekteskap, men straffer var ikke så alvorlige som i New England og kvinner ble straffet hardere enn menn.

Navngivningsmønstrene for barn fulgte skikken i Sørvest -England. Barn ble ofte oppkalt etter familiemedlemmer, men i et annet mønster enn New England. Den eldste sønnen ble oppkalt etter sin farfar, neste sønn etter morfar, neste til far. Det samme mønsteret ble brukt for jenter. De brukte færre bibelske navn enn i New England og kalte ofte barn for konger og riddere-favoritter var Robert, Richard, Edward, George og Charles. De brukte også navn på kristne helgener som ikke finnes i Bibelen og engelske folkenavn-favoritter var Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances og Alice. Men de bibelske navnene på Mary, Elizabeth og Sarah var like populære som i New England. Barnedåp ble praktisert.

Foreldrene i Virginia var mer overbærende enn foreldrene i New England. Barn ble faktisk oppmuntret til å være egensinnige, men det ble også forventet at de skulle observere noen ganske forseggjorte ritualer om selvbeherskelse. Den eldre patriarkideen var veldig sterk og mye ritual omgitt den også. Det var få skoler. Barn i eliteklassen ble utdannet hjemme og de fattige forble analfabeter. Det var ingen townships som i New England. Folk slo seg ned på plantasjer og det var små markedslandsbyer.

Den beste kilden til registreringer er Episcopal Church, hvor alle dåp, ekteskap og dødsfall ble registrert. Det var en periode på omtrent 100 år da alle måtte gjøre disse tingene i statskirken, selv om de ikke var medlem.

Hvis du vil studere disse gruppene mer grundig, anbefaler jeg at du leser boken, ALBIONS SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA av David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Mye (men ikke alt) av materialet i denne "Oppskrift" er fra den boken.


Denne populære britiske godisen kommer til Amerika - oppskrifter

TRYKT MED TILLATELSE

En serie i fire deler om de største gruppene av emigranter fra De britiske øyer til Colonial America. De var: PURITANERNE som først og fremst kom fra East Anglia til Massachusetts Bay Colony mellom 1629 og 1640 CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS som først og fremst kom fra Sør -England til Virginia mellom 1642 og 1675 QUAKERS som først og fremst kom fra det engelske Midlands til Pennsylvania mellom 1675 og 1725 og SKOTSK-IRISKEN som først og fremst kom fra de engelsk/skotske grensefylkene (noen ganger via Nord-Irland) til Virginia (via Pennsylvania) mellom 1717 og 1775.

I ALBION'S SEED omtalte David Fischer denne andre gruppen innvandrere som "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". Når vi går videre, tror jeg du vil se hvorfor. Dette var en gruppe mennesker som stort sett emigrerte fra de sørvestlige engelske fylkene Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire og flere andre til Chesapeake Bay -området i Virginia og Maryland mellom 1642 og 1675, mens topptiden var 1650 -årene. Årsaken til denne migrasjonen var litt mer komplisert. Puritanerne hadde fått kontroll i England og anglikanerne ble nå forfulgt. Så noen av menneskene som dro, gjorde det på grunn av religiøs forfølgelse, akkurat som puritanerne hadde. Men det var en sekundær motivasjon for noen. Arveloven i England ga all fast eiendom til familiens eldste sønn. Noen av de som forlot England var andre eller tredje sønn av "elite" -familier som ønsket å dra til et sted hvor de kunne ha sitt eget land.

I begynnelsen tiltrukket Virginia mennesker med blandet religiøs bakgrunn. Men hovedreligionen var Church of England (Episcopal). Etter at Virginia ble en kongelig koloni, vedtok forsamlingen lover som gjorde Englands kirke til statskirken i Virginia (1632). Over en periode ble det vanskeligere og vanskeligere for personer i forskjellige religioner å forbli i Virginia.

Omtrent 25 prosent av personene i denne andre migrasjonen var fra den engelske "eliten"-de hadde rikdom, sosial status og utdannelse i England. De var medlemmer av den anglikanske kirken, og de var royalistiske i politikken. De andre 75 prosentene var fra de lavere klassene og kom som tjenere, mange som indenturerte tjenere, for å jobbe på de store plantasjene som ble opprettet av "kavaljerne". Disse var fattige, analfabeter og ufaglærte. Med en gang var det etablert et klassesystem i Virginia som ikke eksisterte og ikke ville blitt godkjent i New England. I denne migrasjonen var menn i antall flere med omtrent 4 til 1. Et flertall av de som kom var ugifte menn mellom 15 og 24 år.

Familiefølelsene var like sterke i denne gruppen som blant puritanerne, men forskjellige i innhold. Det var mye mer vekt på storfamilien. Medlemmer av den samme store familien hadde en tendens til å bosette seg sammen og bo i nærheten av hverandre. Boligenheten var kjernefamilien, men foreningen var storfamilien. De flokket seg sammen i nabolag og begravde sine døde i familietomter. (I motsetning til New England hvor det var felles gravfelt i hver by.) Begrepene "bror" og "fetter" ble brukt mer løst-og kan ikke alltid tas bokstavelig når de finnes i journaler. Husholdninger inkluderte ofte tjenere, losji og besøkende. Alle ble behandlet som familie så lenge de var i husstanden. Virginians syntes ikke å være mistenksom overfor fremmede som New Englanders var.

I Virginia pleide familier å være mindre-hovedsakelig fordi dødeligheten var mye høyere. Det var flere trinnforhold av samme grunn. Denne gruppen delte puritanernes sterke nødvendighet for å gifte seg. Ungkar og spinner ble dømt som unaturlige og farlige for samfunnet. Men ekteskap var ikke en kontrakt, ettersom det i New England var en uoppløselig union, en hellig knute som ikke kunne løsnes. Alle ekteskap ble utført i statskirken (anglikansk) og skilsmisse var ikke tillatt. Det var 5 nødvendige trinn for ekteskap: espousal, banns, religiøs seremoni, ekteskapsfest, seksuell fullbyrdelse. Skriftlig tillatelse fra foreldre var nødvendig. Kjærlighet ble ikke antatt å være nødvendig før ekteskapet. Når det ikke skjedde før, var det forventet å følge det. Foreldre hadde en aktiv rolle i ekteskapsbeslutninger, men tvang vanligvis ikke et barn til å gifte seg mot hans/hennes vilje. Første fetter ekteskap var ok i Virginia og skjedde ofte. Dette fulgte mønsteret deres med "behold det i familien". Ekteskapsfester var forseggjorte-i motsetning til New England hvor de ikke var tillatt. Gjennomsnittsalderen for ekteskap for en mann var omtrent den samme som i New England, 25-26, men for kvinner var den yngre, 18-20 år. Noen menn giftet seg ikke fordi det rett og slett ikke var nok kvinner til å gå rundt. Seksuelle forhold skulle være begrenset til ekteskap, men straffer var ikke så alvorlige som i New England og kvinner ble straffet hardere enn menn.

Navngivningsmønstrene for barn fulgte skikken i Sørvest -England. Barn ble ofte oppkalt etter familiemedlemmer, men i et annet mønster enn New England. Den eldste sønnen ble oppkalt etter sin farfar, neste sønn etter morfar, neste til far. Det samme mønsteret ble brukt for jenter. De brukte færre bibelske navn enn i New England og kalte ofte barn for konger og riddere-favoritter var Robert, Richard, Edward, George og Charles. De brukte også navn på kristne helgener som ikke finnes i Bibelen og engelske folkenavn-favoritter var Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances og Alice. Men de bibelske navnene på Mary, Elizabeth og Sarah var like populære som i New England. Barnedåp ble praktisert.

Foreldrene i Virginia var mer overbærende enn foreldrene i New England. Barn ble faktisk oppmuntret til å være egensinnige, men det ble også forventet at de skulle observere noen ganske forseggjorte ritualer om selvbeherskelse. Den eldre patriarkideen var veldig sterk og mye ritual omgitt den også. Det var få skoler. Barn i eliteklassen ble utdannet hjemme og de fattige forble analfabeter. Det var ingen townships som i New England. Folk slo seg ned på plantasjer og det var små markedslandsbyer.

Den beste kilden til registreringer er Episcopal Church, hvor alle dåp, ekteskap og dødsfall ble registrert. Det var en periode på omtrent 100 år da alle måtte gjøre disse tingene i statskirken, selv om de ikke var medlem.

Hvis du vil studere disse gruppene mer grundig, anbefaler jeg at du leser boken, ALBIONS SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA av David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Mye (men ikke alt) av materialet i denne "Oppskrift" er fra den boken.


Denne populære britiske godisen kommer til Amerika - oppskrifter

TRYKT MED TILLATELSE

En serie i fire deler om de største gruppene av emigranter fra De britiske øyer til Colonial America. De var: PURITANERNE som først og fremst kom fra East Anglia til Massachusetts Bay Colony mellom 1629 og 1640 CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS som først og fremst kom fra Sør -England til Virginia mellom 1642 og 1675 QUAKERS som først og fremst kom fra det engelske Midlands til Pennsylvania mellom 1675 og 1725 og SKOTSK-IRISKEN som først og fremst kom fra de engelsk/skotske grensefylkene (noen ganger via Nord-Irland) til Virginia (via Pennsylvania) mellom 1717 og 1775.

I ALBION'S SEED omtalte David Fischer denne andre gruppen innvandrere som "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". Når vi går videre, tror jeg du vil se hvorfor. Dette var en gruppe mennesker som stort sett emigrerte fra de sørvestlige engelske fylkene Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire og flere andre til Chesapeake Bay -området i Virginia og Maryland mellom 1642 og 1675, mens topptiden var 1650 -årene. Årsaken til denne migrasjonen var litt mer komplisert. Puritanerne hadde fått kontroll i England og anglikanerne ble nå forfulgt. Så noen av menneskene som dro, gjorde det på grunn av religiøs forfølgelse, akkurat som puritanerne hadde. Men det var en sekundær motivasjon for noen. Arveloven i England ga all fast eiendom til familiens eldste sønn. Noen av de som forlot England var andre eller tredje sønn av "elite" -familier som ønsket å dra til et sted hvor de kunne ha sitt eget land.

I begynnelsen tiltrukket Virginia mennesker med blandet religiøs bakgrunn. Men hovedreligionen var Church of England (Episcopal). Etter at Virginia ble en kongelig koloni, vedtok forsamlingen lover som gjorde Church of England til statskirken i Virginia (1632). Over en periode ble det vanskeligere og vanskeligere for personer av forskjellige religioner å forbli i Virginia.

Omtrent 25 prosent av personene i denne andre migrasjonen var fra den engelske "eliten"-de hadde rikdom, sosial status og utdannelse i England. De var medlemmer av den anglikanske kirken, og de var royalistiske i politikken. De andre 75 prosentene var fra de lavere klassene og kom som tjenere, mange som indenturerte tjenere, for å jobbe på de store plantasjene som ble opprettet av "kavaljerne". Disse var fattige, analfabeter og ufaglærte. Med en gang var det etablert et klassesystem i Virginia som ikke eksisterte og ikke ville blitt godkjent i New England. I denne migrasjonen var menn i antall flere med omtrent 4 til 1. Et flertall av de som kom var ugifte menn mellom 15 og 24 år.

Familiefølelsene var like sterke i denne gruppen som blant puritanerne, men forskjellige i innhold. Det var mye mer vekt på storfamilien. Medlemmer av den samme store familien hadde en tendens til å bosette seg sammen og bo i nærheten av hverandre. Boligenheten var kjernefamilien, men foreningen var storfamilien. De flokket seg sammen i nabolag og begravde sine døde i familietomter. (I motsetning til New England hvor det var felles gravfelt i hver by.) Begrepene "bror" og "fetter" ble brukt mer løst-og kan ikke alltid tas bokstavelig når de finnes i journaler. Husholdninger inkluderte ofte tjenere, losji og besøkende. Alle ble behandlet som familie så lenge de var i husstanden. Virginians syntes ikke å være mistenksom overfor fremmede som New Englanders var.

I Virginia pleide familier å være mindre-hovedsakelig fordi dødeligheten var mye høyere. Det var flere trinnforhold av samme grunn. Denne gruppen delte puritanernes sterke nødvendighet for å gifte seg. Ungkar og spinner ble dømt som unaturlige og farlige for samfunnet. Men ekteskap var ikke en kontrakt, ettersom det i New England var en uoppløselig union, en hellig knute som ikke kunne løsnes. Alle ekteskap ble utført i statskirken (anglikansk) og skilsmisse var ikke tillatt. Det var 5 nødvendige trinn til ekteskap: espousal, banns, religiøs seremoni, ekteskapsfest, seksuell fullbyrdelse. Skriftlig tillatelse fra foreldre var nødvendig. Kjærlighet ble ikke antatt å være nødvendig før ekteskapet. Når det ikke skjedde før, var det forventet å følge det. Foreldre hadde en aktiv rolle i ekteskapsbeslutninger, men tvang vanligvis ikke et barn til å gifte seg mot hans/hennes vilje. Første fetter ekteskap var ok i Virginia og skjedde ofte. Dette fulgte mønsteret deres med "behold det i familien". Ekteskapsfester var forseggjorte-i motsetning til New England hvor de ikke var tillatt. Gjennomsnittsalderen for ekteskap for en mann var omtrent den samme som i New England, 25-26, men for kvinner var den yngre, 18-20 år. Noen menn giftet seg ikke fordi det rett og slett ikke var nok kvinner til å gå rundt. Seksuelle forhold skulle være begrenset til ekteskap, men straffer var ikke så alvorlige som i New England og kvinner ble straffet hardere enn menn.

Navngivningsmønstrene for barn fulgte skikken i Sørvest -England. Barn ble ofte oppkalt etter familiemedlemmer, men i et annet mønster enn New England. Den eldste sønnen ble oppkalt etter sin farfar, neste sønn etter morfar, neste til far. Det samme mønsteret ble brukt for jenter. De brukte færre bibelske navn enn i New England og kalte ofte barn for konger og riddere-favoritter var Robert, Richard, Edward, George og Charles. De brukte også navn på kristne helgener som ikke finnes i Bibelen og engelske folkenavn-favoritter var Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances og Alice. Men de bibelske navnene på Mary, Elizabeth og Sarah var like populære som i New England. Barnedåp ble praktisert.

Foreldrene i Virginia var mer overbærende enn foreldrene i New England. Barn ble faktisk oppmuntret til å være egensinnige, men det ble også forventet at de skulle observere noen ganske forseggjorte ritualer om selvbeherskelse. Den eldre patriarkideen var veldig sterk og mye ritual omgitt den også. Det var få skoler. Barn i eliteklassen ble utdannet hjemme og de fattige forble analfabeter. Det var ingen townships som i New England. Folk slo seg ned på plantasjer og det var små markedslandsbyer.

Den beste kilden til registreringer er Episcopal Church, hvor alle dåp, ekteskap og dødsfall ble registrert. Det var en periode på omtrent 100 år da alle måtte gjøre disse tingene i statskirken, selv om de ikke var medlem.

Hvis du vil studere disse gruppene mer grundig, anbefaler jeg at du leser boken, ALBIONS SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA av David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Mye (men ikke alt) av materialet i denne "Oppskrift" er fra den boken.


Denne populære britiske godisen kommer til Amerika - oppskrifter

TRYKT MED TILLATELSE

En serie i fire deler om de største gruppene av emigranter fra De britiske øyer til Colonial America. De var: PURITANERNE som først og fremst kom fra East Anglia til Massachusetts Bay Colony mellom 1629 og 1640 CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS som først og fremst kom fra Sør -England til Virginia mellom 1642 og 1675 QUAKERS som først og fremst kom fra det engelske Midlands til Pennsylvania mellom 1675 og 1725 og SKOTSK-IRISKEN som først og fremst kom fra de engelsk/skotske grensefylkene (noen ganger via Nord-Irland) til Virginia (via Pennsylvania) mellom 1717 og 1775.

I ALBION'S SEED omtalte David Fischer denne andre gruppen innvandrere som "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". Når vi går videre, tror jeg du vil se hvorfor. Dette var en gruppe mennesker som stort sett emigrerte fra de sørvestlige engelske fylkene Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire og flere andre til Chesapeake Bay -området i Virginia og Maryland mellom 1642 og 1675, mens topptiden var 1650 -årene. Årsaken til denne migrasjonen var litt mer komplisert. Puritanerne hadde fått kontroll i England og anglikanerne ble nå forfulgt. Så noen av menneskene som dro, gjorde det på grunn av religiøs forfølgelse, akkurat som puritanerne hadde. Men det var en sekundær motivasjon for noen. Arveloven i England ga all fast eiendom til familiens eldste sønn. Noen av de som forlot England var andre eller tredje sønn av "elite" -familier som ønsket å dra til et sted hvor de kunne ha sitt eget land.

I begynnelsen tiltrukket Virginia mennesker med blandet religiøs bakgrunn. Men hovedreligionen var Church of England (Episcopal). Etter at Virginia ble en kongelig koloni, vedtok forsamlingen lover som gjorde Englands kirke til statskirken i Virginia (1632). Over en periode ble det vanskeligere og vanskeligere for personer i forskjellige religioner å forbli i Virginia.

Omtrent 25 prosent av personene i denne andre migrasjonen var fra den engelske "eliten"-de hadde rikdom, sosial status og utdannelse i England. De var medlemmer av den anglikanske kirken, og de var royalistiske i politikken. De andre 75 prosentene var fra de lavere klassene og kom som tjenere, mange som indenturerte tjenere, for å jobbe på de store plantasjene som ble opprettet av "kavaljerne". Disse var fattige, analfabeter og ufaglærte. Med en gang var det etablert et klassesystem i Virginia som ikke eksisterte og ikke ville blitt godkjent i New England. I denne migrasjonen var menn i antall flere med omtrent 4 til 1. Et flertall av de som kom var ugifte menn mellom 15 og 24 år.

Familiefølelsene var like sterke i denne gruppen som blant puritanerne, men forskjellige i innhold. Det var mye mer vekt på storfamilien. Medlemmer av den samme store familien hadde en tendens til å bosette seg sammen og bo i nærheten av hverandre. Boligenheten var kjernefamilien, men foreningen var storfamilien. De flokket seg sammen i nabolag og begravde sine døde i familietomter. (I motsetning til New England hvor det var felles gravfelt i hver by.) Begrepene "bror" og "fetter" ble brukt mer løst-og kan ikke alltid tas bokstavelig når de finnes i journaler. Husholdninger inkluderte ofte tjenere, losji og besøkende. Alle ble behandlet som familie så lenge de var i husstanden. Virginians syntes ikke å være mistenksom overfor fremmede som New Englanders var.

I Virginia pleide familier å være mindre-hovedsakelig fordi dødeligheten var mye høyere. Det var flere trinnforhold av samme grunn. Denne gruppen delte puritanernes sterke nødvendighet for å gifte seg. Ungkar og spinner ble dømt som unaturlige og farlige for samfunnet. Men ekteskap var ikke en kontrakt, ettersom det i New England var en uoppløselig union, en hellig knute som ikke kunne løsnes. Alle ekteskap ble utført i statskirken (anglikansk) og skilsmisse var ikke tillatt. Det var 5 nødvendige trinn for ekteskap: espousal, banns, religiøs seremoni, ekteskapsfest, seksuell fullbyrdelse. Skriftlig tillatelse fra foreldre var nødvendig. Kjærlighet ble ikke antatt å være nødvendig før ekteskapet. Når det ikke skjedde før, var det forventet å følge det. Foreldre hadde en aktiv rolle i ekteskapsbeslutninger, men tvang vanligvis ikke et barn til å gifte seg mot hans/hennes vilje. Første fetter ekteskap var ok i Virginia og skjedde ofte. Dette fulgte mønsteret deres med "behold det i familien". Ekteskapsfester var forseggjorte-i motsetning til New England hvor de ikke var tillatt. Gjennomsnittsalderen for ekteskap for en mann var omtrent den samme som i New England, 25-26, men for kvinner var den yngre, 18-20 år. Noen menn giftet seg ikke fordi det rett og slett ikke var nok kvinner til å gå rundt. Seksuelle forhold skulle være begrenset til ekteskap, men straffer var ikke så alvorlige som i New England og kvinner ble straffet hardere enn menn.

Navngivningsmønstrene for barn fulgte skikken i Sørvest -England. Barn ble ofte oppkalt etter familiemedlemmer, men i et annet mønster enn New England. Den eldste sønnen ble oppkalt etter sin farfar, neste sønn etter morfar, neste til far. Det samme mønsteret ble brukt for jenter. De brukte færre bibelske navn enn i New England og kalte ofte barn for konger og riddere-favoritter var Robert, Richard, Edward, George og Charles. De brukte også navn på kristne helgener som ikke finnes i Bibelen og engelske folkenavn-favoritter var Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances og Alice. Men de bibelske navnene på Mary, Elizabeth og Sarah var like populære som i New England. Barnedåp ble praktisert.

Foreldrene i Virginia var mer overbærende enn foreldrene i New England. Barn ble faktisk oppmuntret til å være egensinnige, men det ble også forventet at de skulle observere noen ganske forseggjorte ritualer om selvbeherskelse. Den eldre patriarkideen var veldig sterk og mye ritual omgitt den også. Det var få skoler. Barn i eliteklassen ble utdannet hjemme og de fattige forble analfabeter. Det var ingen townships som i New England. Folk slo seg ned på plantasjer og det var små markedslandsbyer.

Den beste kilden til registreringer er Episcopal Church, hvor alle dåp, ekteskap og dødsfall ble registrert. Det var en periode på omtrent 100 år da alle måtte gjøre disse tingene i statskirken, selv om de ikke var medlem.

Hvis du vil studere disse gruppene mer grundig, anbefaler jeg at du leser boken, ALBIONS SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA av David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Mye (men ikke alt) av materialet i denne "Oppskrift" er fra den boken.


Denne populære britiske godisen kommer til Amerika - oppskrifter

TRYKT MED TILLATELSE

En serie i fire deler om de største gruppene av emigranter fra De britiske øyer til Colonial America. De var: PURITANERNE som først og fremst kom fra East Anglia til Massachusetts Bay Colony mellom 1629 og 1640 CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS som først og fremst kom fra Sør -England til Virginia mellom 1642 og 1675 QUAKERS som først og fremst kom fra det engelske Midlands til Pennsylvania mellom 1675 og 1725 og SKOTSK-IRISKEN som først og fremst kom fra de engelsk/skotske grensefylkene (noen ganger via Nord-Irland) til Virginia (via Pennsylvania) mellom 1717 og 1775.

I ALBION'S SEED omtalte David Fischer denne andre gruppen innvandrere som "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". Når vi går videre, tror jeg du vil se hvorfor. Dette var en gruppe mennesker som stort sett emigrerte fra de sørvestlige engelske fylkene Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire og flere andre til Chesapeake Bay -området i Virginia og Maryland mellom 1642 og 1675, og topptiden var 1650 -årene. Årsaken til denne migrasjonen var litt mer komplisert. Puritanerne hadde fått kontroll i England og anglikanerne ble nå forfulgt. Så noen av menneskene som dro, gjorde det på grunn av religiøs forfølgelse, akkurat som puritanerne hadde. Men det var en sekundær motivasjon for noen. Arveloven i England ga all fast eiendom til familiens eldste sønn. Noen av de som forlot England var andre eller tredje sønn av "elite" -familier som ønsket å dra til et sted hvor de kunne ha sitt eget land.

I begynnelsen tiltrukket Virginia mennesker med blandet religiøs bakgrunn. Men hovedreligionen var Church of England (Episcopal). Etter at Virginia ble en kongelig koloni, vedtok forsamlingen lover som gjorde Englands kirke til statskirken i Virginia (1632). Over en periode ble det vanskeligere og vanskeligere for personer av forskjellige religioner å forbli i Virginia.

Omtrent 25 prosent av personene i denne andre migrasjonen var fra den engelske "eliten"-de hadde rikdom, sosial status og utdannelse i England. De var medlemmer av den anglikanske kirken, og de var royalistiske i politikken. De andre 75 prosentene var fra de lavere klassene og kom som tjenere, mange som indenturerte tjenere, for å jobbe på de store plantasjene som ble opprettet av "kavaljerne". Disse var fattige, analfabeter og ufaglærte. Med en gang var det etablert et klassesystem i Virginia som ikke eksisterte og ikke ville blitt godkjent i New England. I denne migrasjonen var menn i antall flere med omtrent 4 til 1. Et flertall av de som kom var ugifte menn mellom 15 og 24 år.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


Se videoen: FAKTA: Britisk charmetrold har plads i rekordbog (Juni 2022).


Kommentarer:

  1. Tojahn

    Det er synd at jeg ikke kan snakke nå - jeg har det travelt med å komme på jobb. Men jeg vil være fri - jeg vil definitivt skrive det jeg synes om dette problemet.

  2. Leroi

    Jeg er helt enig med deg, jeg har kommet til denne oppfatningen for lenge siden.



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